Early diagnosis of radiation injuries by methods of immunochemical and EPR analyses
- Gennadiy V. Konyukhov et al. ,
- Ramzi N. Nizamov ,
- Natalya B. Tarasova ,
- Rimma V. Nefedova ,
- Vladimir Yu. Petukhov ,
- Maryam I. Ibragimova ,
- Galiya R. Yusupova ,
The diagnosis of radiation injuries involves a complex of clinical and hematological, biochemical, cytomorphological, and other tests. None of these methods, however, allows the objectives of diagnosis, rapid assessment of severity, and prognosis of radiation injuries to be achieved.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the possibility of using immunochemical test methods; indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and a physical method (electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)) for the rapid diagnosis of radiation injuries. Antigens (radiotoxic of quinoid nature), globulins derived from hyperimmunized rabbits and sheep, erythrocyte and enzyme-labeled conjugates were used as specific components. Sensitization of erythrocytes and labeling of globulins with enzyme horseradish peroxidase were carried out in accordance with methods applied in immunochemistry. After having been tested for activity, specificity, and stability, the diagnostics were used in immunochemical test systems for indicating radiotoxic in the blood serum, tissues, and organs of irradiated animals. To confirm the results of the immunochemical tests, physical analysis of the samples was performed in parallel by the method of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR).
According to the outcomes of the study, it is as early as on day 1â€“3after radiation exposure that radiotoxic with titers in the range of 1:4â€“1:16aredetected in the animal blood serum byELISA and IHA test systems. As acute radiation syndrome (ARS) develops, the antigen titers increase; at higher titer values (1:16â€“1:32) ARSappears in its severe and fatal form.
Due to their high activity and specificity, the produced antiradiation diagnostics, and EPR test is applicable for the indication of radiation and toxic antigens in animal blood serum, lifetime diagnosis and prognosis of ARS, as well as for indicating toxic compounds in the meat and meat from irradiated animals.