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Association incidence of hypertension in different types of rheumatic disease: an analysis of the effect of age and body mass index

Abstract

Introduction: Increased prevalence of hypertension compared to the general population has been repeatedly reported in patients with rheumatic diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PSA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), gout arthritis, and osteoarthritis. This is believed to be associated with systemic inflammation and the effects of specific disease treatments. This study delves into the intricate relationship between hypertension and various rheumatic diseases, encompassing RA, PSA, SLE, gout arthritis, and osteoarthritis. Given the pivotal role of hypertension as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, our investigation aimed to scrutinize its prevalence within the rheumatic disease spectrum while dissecting the nuanced impact of age and body mass index (BMI) on its incidence.

Methods: This was an observational analytical study with a cross-sectional design. We meticulously analyzed all patient visits to the Rheumatology Clinic between January 2022 and August 2023. The diagnosis criteria for hypertension are based on the 2020 International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test assesses data normality, and Mann-Whitney and Chi-Square tests are applied for non-normally distributed data. Statistical significance is considered when the p-value is <0.05.

Results: Our findings revealed a substantial occurrence of hypertension among rheumatic disease subjects, reaching 35.2%, coupled with a disconcertingly low treatment compliance rate of 32.6%. Osteoarthritis exhibited the highest prevalence at 47%, followed by gouty arthritis (38.2%), RA (35%), and SLE (34.7%). Significantly, Chi-Square analysis illuminated a noteworthy association between age groups and hypertension incidence in osteoarthritis and SLE cases.

Conclusion: Hypertension manifests more prominently in the rheumatic disease population than in the general healthy populace. Osteoarthritis and SLE, in conjunction with age-related factors, collectively exert a substantial influence on the incidence of hypertension, unraveling a multifaceted interplay between these variables within the rheumatic landscape.

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How to Cite

Setiawan, D. R., Adnan, E., Ramadhan, S. R. Z., Bakri, S., Tandean, P., & Zainuddin, A. A. (2024). Association incidence of hypertension in different types of rheumatic disease: an analysis of the effect of age and body mass index. Bali Medical Journal, 13(2), 755–760. https://doi.org/10.15562/bmj.v13i2.5031

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Dicky Rahmat Setiawan
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Endy Adnan
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Sitti Rabiul Zatalia Ramadhan
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Syakib Bakri
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Pendrik Tandean
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