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Development of non-pharmacological pain management (behavioral intervention) model based on family-centered empowerment in toddlers with invasive procedures

  • Wesiana Heris Santy ,
  • I Dewa Gede Ugrasena ,
  • Yuni Sufyanti Arief ,
  • Nur Hidayah ,
  • Firdaus ,
  • Resti Utami ,


Introduction: Communication between parents and health professionals in children about assessing and managing their children's pain with both oral and written instructions still needs to be improved. Children with a relationship with a parent or caregiver may be easier to assess and benefit from non-pharmacological treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the development of non-pharmacological pain management (behavioral intervention) model based on family-centered empowerment in toddlers with invasive procedures.

Methods: This study design is an explanation survey with cross sectional approach. The sample consisted of 115 mothers with toddler-age children subjected to invasive prosedures in Rumah Sakit Islam Surabaya using purposive sampling. The data was analyzed using SmartPLS.

Results: Non-pharmacological pain management model based on family-centered empowerment was formed from the mother factor, nurse factor, filial values, and appraisal. The greatest effect was on the filial values factor, with the T statistic value = 2.777.

Conclusions: Nonpharmacological pain management (behavioral intervention) is formed by the mother factor, nurse factor, filial values, and appraisal, where filial values are the most influential. Therefore, in conducting pain nursing care in the nurse's room, paying attention to the four factors above is necessary to improve the quality of care services, especially in comfort for toddler children who undergo invasive actions.


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How to Cite

Wesiana Heris Santy, I Dewa Gede Ugrasena, Yuni Sufyanti Arief, Nur Hidayah, Firdaus, & Resti Utami. (2023). Development of non-pharmacological pain management (behavioral intervention) model based on family-centered empowerment in toddlers with invasive procedures. Bali Medical Journal, 12(2), 1311–1315.




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