Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common skin disease in infants and children, influenced by hereditary and environmental factors and characterized by an inflammatory reaction in the skin. The increase in AD has been explained by two hypotheses: the "hygiene hypothesis" and the "diet–microbiome hypothesis." AD is driven by a familial or personal predisposition to induce immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and sensitize in response to stimuli. Microorganisms on the skin have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD, and changes in the composition of the skin microbiome have been investigated in disease progression in pediatric AD patients.
Method: This descriptive observational study with a cross-sectional approach aims to determine the bacteria found in AD. The samples were taken from both the lesion and non-lesion areas in children with AD, which grown anaerobically and aerobically in blood and Brucella agar at 37C. The bacteri then indentified by Vitek® 2 and the data presented in percentage.
Result: Thirty-five pediatric patients (18 males and 17 females) with a mean age of 7.58 (0,17 – 16) years were diagnosed with AD and were examined for bacterial culture on lesions and non-lesions. A total of 4 types of bacteria were found on the neck, 20 on the forearm, 2 on hand folds, 2 on fingers, 1 on the knee, and 5 on the lower limbs.
Conclusion: The most common bacteria were Gram-negative bacilli, namely, Acinetobacter baumannii (15%) and Burkholderia cepacian (14.3%), followed by the Gram-positive coccus Staphylococcus hominis (11.4%).