Background: Pregnant women with congenital heart disease tetralogy of fallot who undergo cesarean section have their own challenges for the anesthesiologist, not to mention if they have pregnancy complications such as placenta previa. The choice of the safest anesthetic technique is still debated today. The anesthetic technique must be able to maintain systemic vascular resistance, avoid increasing pulmonary vascular resistance, and be aware of the threat of blood loss due to placenta previa.
Case Report: 29 years old pregnant woman, weighing 46 kg and height 155 cm, G1P0A0, Gravida 27-28 weeks, single alive fetus, fetal distress, comes with complaints of shortness of breath, vaginal bleeding due to placenta previa with tetralogy of fallot planned emergency cesarean section. The patient presented with functional class NYHA II-III. We used low-dose spinal anesthesia with 5 mg bupivacaine 0.5% and 25 ug fentanyl as an adjuvant. Colloading was done with gelofusin colloid fluid to replace the amount of bleeding. Hemodynamics prior to anesthesia were BP 120/80, Heart Rate 80 x/minure, SpO2 72% with a non-rebreathing mask 10 litre/minute. There was no severe hypotension during surgery, and was hemodynamically stable with limited use of vasopressors. After the cesarean section was completed, the patient was transferred to the ICU and treated for 2 days, and was only discharged after 5 days of treatment without additional complications.
Conclusion: The use of low-dose spinal anesthesia in combination with adjuvant fentanyl results in a relatively safe anesthetic technique with minimal hemodynamic changes and adequate analgesia for cesarean delivery.