Background: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the efficacy and safety of mini-Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy (PCNL) compared to standard PCNL in children with nephrolithiasis. Clinical trials and observational studies comparing standard PCNL and mini-PCNL in pediatric patients were identified from electronic databases in November 2021.
Method: Studies were extracted for author, year, location, design, subjects’ age, sample size, objective, primary endpoint, level of evidence, and results (stone-free rates and complications). Results were subjected to qualitative analysis using the synthesis method. Adequate results were extracted and analyzed quantitatively using the fixed-effect model on homogenous data or the random-effect model on heterogeneous data for meta-analysis. Outcome variables are shown as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). All statistical analyses were performed with Review Manager version 5.4.
Result: We reported that stone-free rate and residual stone vary between two studies with contrary results. However, our quantitative analysis showed an insignificant difference between both groups of stone-free rate (OR 0.75; 95% CI 0.22-2.54) and residual stone (OR 1.27; 95% CI 0.55-2.91). Complications rates were insignificantly different between mini-PCNL group and PCNL group in two studies in Clavien 1 (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.27-1.54) and Clavien 2 grade (OR 0.48; 95% CI 0.19-1.22). In addition, pooled analysis of both complication grades was also insignificant in the difference between groups (OR 0.56; 95% CI 0.30-1.06).
Conclusion: The efficacy and safety of mini PCNL were neither superior nor inferior compared to standard PCNL in managing nephrolithiasis in pediatric patients. Moreover, mini PCNL was considered better regarding post-operative pain and tract infection; thus, mini PCNL could be considered a treatment option for pediatric patients with nephrolithiasis.