Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Relationship of age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, salt intake, and stress with high blood pressure among rural dwellers in Kudat, Sabah

  • Khalid Mokti ,
  • Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahime ,


Background: Hypertension is one of the leading health concerns that can be intervened, especially in rural areas. Thus, this study determined the prevalence and risk factors associated with hypertension among rural dwellers in Kudat's village, Malaysia.

Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design carried out from 5th October 2019 until 17th October 2019. Universal sampling was used for sample size calculation. There are 111 respondents who are above 18 years old involved in this research. Association between hypertension and risk factors outcomes were analyzed by using logistic regression. The relationship between continuous variables was analyzed using correlation analysis.

Results: The prevalence of hypertension among Kudat's villagers was 30% (n=33). There is a significant association between age and BMI with Hypertension. Also, there is a significant correlation between age, BMI, physical activity, with blood pressure. While other risk factors, including sociodemographic and lifestyles, do not significantly correlate with hypertension.

Conclusion: Hypertension is highly prevalent in the village and is significantly associated with BMI and age group. Physical activity also correlates with blood pressure. Hence, an effective intervention that includes lifestyle and dietary behavior changes, health promotion, and health screening should be implemented to tackle this problem.


  1. Naing C, Yeoh PN, Wai VN, Win NN, Kuan LP, Aung K. Hypertension in Malaysia: An analysis of trends from the national surveys 1996 to 2011. Med (United States). 2016;95(2):1–7.
  2. World Health Organization International Society of Hypertension Writing Group. 2003 World Health Organization (WHO)/ International Society of Hypertension (ISH) statement on management of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2003;21(11):1983–92. Available from:
  3. Mills KT, Bundy JD, Kelly TN, Reed JE, Kearney PM, Reynolds K, et al. Global Burden of Hypertension. J Hypertens. 2015;33(Supplement 2):e2. Available from:
  4. Ahmad N, Hassan Y, Tangiisuran B, Meng OL, Aziz NA, Ahmad F-D, et al. Guidelines adherence and hypertension control at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. J Eval Clin Pract. 2012;no-no. Available from:
  5. Ng CR, Selvarajah L, Loh YL. AB0913 To determine the association between plaque and non plaque psoriasis with their joint manifestation in psoriatic arthritis patient – a single centre experience in malaysia [Internet]. Psoriatic arthritis. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd and European League Against Rheumatism; 2018. Available from:
  6. Gasperin D, Netuveli G, Dias-da-Costa JS, Pattussi MP. Effect of psychological stress on blood pressure increase: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Cad Saude Publica. 2009;25(4):715–26. Available from:
  7. Abdul-Razak S, Daher AM, Ramli AS, Ariffin F, Mazapuspavina MY, Ambigga KS, et al. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, control and socio demographic determinants of hypertension in Malaysian adults. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:351. Available from:
  8. Mahadir Naidu B, Mohd Yusoff MF, Abdullah S, Musa KI, Yaacob NM, Mohamad MS, et al. Factors associated with the severity of hypertension among Malaysian adults. PLoS One. 2019;14(1):e0207472–e0207472. Available from:
  9. Rashid A, Khalid Y, Chia Y. Management of hypertension. Malaysian Fam physician Off J Acad Fam Physicians Malaysia. 2011;6(1):40.
  10. Anchala R, Kannuri NK, Pant H, Khan H, Franco OH, Di Angelantonio E, et al. Hypertension in India: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension. J Hypertens. 2014;32(6):1170–7. Available from:
  11. Liu M-Y, Li N, Li WA, Khan H. Association between psychosocial stress and hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurol Res. 2017;39(6):573–80. Available from:
  12. Malaysia M. National Health & Morbidity Survey 2015 non‐communicable diseases, risk factors & other health problems.
  13. Buford TW. Hypertension and aging. Ageing Res Rev. 2016/02/01. 2016;26:96–111. Available from:
  14. Liew SJ, Lee JT, Tan CS, Koh CHG, Van Dam R, Müller-Riemenschneider F. Sociodemographic factors in relation to hypertension prevalence, awareness, treatment and control in a multi-ethnic Asian population: a cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. 2019;9(5):e025869–e025869. Available from:
  15. Abebe SM, Berhane Y, Worku A, Getachew A. Prevalence and associated factors of hypertension: a crossectional community based study in northwest ethiopia. PLoS One. 2015;10(4):e0125210–e0125210. Available from:
  16. Sabaka P, Dukat A, Gajdosik J, Bendzala M, Caprnda M, Simko F. The effects of body weight loss and gain on arterial hypertension control: an observational prospective study. Eur J Med Res. 2017;22(1):43. Available from:
  17. Ng C-W, Shahari MR, Mariapun J, Hairi NNM, Rampal S, Mahal A. Universal Coverage of Hypertension Treatment Services in Malaysia Is Still an Elusive Goal. Heal Syst Reform. 2017;3(3):159–70. Available from:
  18. Timpson NJ, Harbord R, Davey Smith G, Zacho J, Tybjærg-Hansen A, Nordestgaard BG. Does Greater Adiposity Increase Blood Pressure and Hypertension Risk? Hypertension. 2009;54(1):84–90. Available from:
  19. Winnicki M, Bonso E, Dorigatti F, Longo D, Zaetta V, Mattarei M, et al. Effect of Body Weight Loss on Blood Pressure After 6 Years of Follow-Up in Stage 1 Hypertension. Am J Hypertens. 2006;19(11):1103–9. Available from:
  20. Loh KW, Rani F, Chan TC, Loh HY, Ng CW, Moy FM. The association between risk factors and hypertension in perak, malaysia. Med J Malaysia. 2013;68(4):291–6.
  21. Teh CH, Chan YY, Lim KH, Kee CC, Lim KK, Yeo PS, et al. Association of physical activity with blood pressure and blood glucose among Malaysian adults: a population-based study. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1205. Available from:
  22. Thompson PD, Crouse SF, Goodpaster B, Kelley D, Moyna N, Pescatello L. The acute versus the chronic response to exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2001;33(Supplement):S438–45. Available from:
  23. Pescatello LS, Franklin BA, Fagard R, Farquhar WB, Kelley GA, Ray CA. Exercise and Hypertension. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2004;36(3):533–53. Available from:
  24. Hegde SM, Solomon SD. Influence of Physical Activity on Hypertension and Cardiac Structure and Function. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2015;17(10):77. Available from:
  25. Korsager Larsen M, Matchkov V V. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress. Medicina (B Aires). 2016;52(1):19–27. Available from:
  26. Lelong H, Galan P, Kesse-Guyot E, Fezeu L, Hercberg S, Blacher J. Relationship Between Nutrition and Blood Pressure: A Cross-Sectional Analysis from the NutriNet-Sante Study, a French Web-based Cohort Study. Am J Hypertens. 2014;28(3):362–71. Available from:
  27. Hochkogler CM, Lieder B, Rust P, Berry D, Meier SM, Pignitter M, et al. A 12-week intervention with nonivamide, a TRPV1 agonist, prevents a dietary-induced body fat gain and increases peripheral serotonin in moderately overweight subjects. Mol Nutr Food Res. 2017;61(5):1600731. Available from:
  28. Di Chiara T, Scaglione A, Corrao S, Argano C, Pinto A, Scaglione R. Education and hypertension: impact on global cardiovascular risk. Acta Cardiol. 2017;72(5):507–13. Available from:
  29. Chen W-S, Haniff J, Siau C-S, Seet W, Loh S-F, Abd Jamil MH, et al. Psychometric Properties of the Malay Work-Related Quality of Life (WRQoL) Scale in Malaysia. World J Soc Sci Res. 2014;1(1):57. Available from:

How to Cite

Mokti, K., & Rahime, S. S. S. A. (2022). Relationship of age, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, salt intake, and stress with high blood pressure among rural dwellers in Kudat, Sabah. Bali Medical Journal, 11(1), 360–367.




Search Panel

Khalid Mokti
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal

Syed Sharizman Syed Abdul Rahime
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal