ORIGINAL ARTICLE

COVID-19 Pandemic: Maternal Anxiety Increases During Pregnancy, Indonesia

Arlina Dewi , Fajar Junaedi, Triantoro Safaria, Supriyatiningsih Supriyatiningsih, Iwan Dewanto, Dyah Tri Kusuma Dewi

Arlina Dewi
Master of Hospital Administration, Postgraduate Studies, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Email: arlinadewi@umy.ac.id

Fajar Junaedi
Department of Communication, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Triantoro Safaria
Department of Psychology, Faculty of Psychology, Ahmad Dahlan University,Indonesia

Supriyatiningsih Supriyatiningsih
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Iwan Dewanto
Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medical and Health Science, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Dyah Tri Kusuma Dewi
Master of Hospital Administration, Postgraduate Studies, Universitas Muhammadiyah Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Online First: December 28, 2021 | Cite this Article
Dewi, A., Junaedi, F., Safaria, T., Supriyatiningsih, S., Dewanto, I., Dewi, D. 2021. COVID-19 Pandemic: Maternal Anxiety Increases During Pregnancy, Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal 10(3): 1053-1057. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v10i3.2851


Introduction: The anxiety of pregnant women during the Covid-19 pandemic increased compared to pregnancy in ordinary conditions because pregnant women are one of the populations vulnerable to Covid-19 infection. The Covid-19 Pandemic can affect the health of pregnant women and fetuses, even feared increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to determine the anxiety of pregnant women, especially related to maternal and infant health in the Covid-19 pandemic.

Method: This research is using a quantitative descriptive method with a cross-sectional design. The sample in this study were all pregnant women who were willing to take part in this study. Respondents came from three islands in Indonesia, namely   Java, Sulawesi and Sumatra. The sampling technique used accidental sampling; as many as 20 respondents carried out checks at health  facilities during the pandemic Covid-19. Researchers adopted the Pregnancy Stress Rating Scale (PSRS) instrument for 36 items statement and converted it in a google form for online surveys. The data analysis in this study used a frequency distribution.

Results: The results showed that most of the pregnant women who experienced a severe level of anxiety in “finding safe health facilities for mothers and babies during pregnancy, and childbirth” (32.3) with a tertiary level of education (71.4), live outside the island of Java (83.3), and anxiety increased in the second trimester (61.5) and the third trimester (66.7).

Conclusion: The emotional well-being of pregnant women must be maintained to produce a good quality  pregnancy outcome, so that health workers need to identify pregnant women's anxiety early to minimize its effects. In addition, pregnant women must have the self-awareness to assess  the health conditions, including anxiety during the pregnancy process.

References

Mortazavi F, Mehrabadi M, KiaeeTabar R. Pregnant women’s well-being and worry during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2021;21.

Schwartz DA, Graham AL. Potential Maternal and Infant Outcomes from Coronavirus 2019-nCoV (SARS-CoV-2) Infecting Pregnant Women: Lessons from SARS, MERS, and Other Human Coronavirus Infections. Viruses. 2020;12(2):194.

Brooks A. Health Literacy: What Is It and Why Is It Important? 2019.

Corbett GA, Milne SJ, Hehir MP, Lindow SW, O’connell MP. Health anxiety and behavioural changes of pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2020;249:96–7.

Lebel C, MacKinnon A, Bagshawe M, Tomfohr-Madsen L, Giesbrecht G. Elevated depression and anxiety symptoms among pregnant individuals during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Affect Disord. 2020;277:5–13.

Zainiyah Z, Susanti E. Anxiety in Pregnant Women During Coronavirus (Covid-19) Pandemic in East Java, Indonesia. Maj Kedokt Bandung. 2020;52(3):149–53.

Di Mascio D, Khalil A, Saccone G, Rizzo G, Buca D, Liberati M, et al. Outcome of coronavirus spectrum infections (SARS, MERS, COVID-19) during pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM. 2020;2(2, Supplement):100107.

Nanjundaswamy MH, Shiva L, Desai G, Ganjekar S, Kishore T, Ram U, et al. COVID-19-related anxiety and concerns expressed by pregnant and postpartum women—a survey among obstetricians. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2020;23(6):787–90.

Zhang Y, Muyiduli X, Wang S, Jiang W, Wu J, Li M, et al. Prevalence and relevant factors of anxiety and depression among pregnant women in a cohort study from south-east China. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2018;36(5):519–29.

Rathbone AL, Prescott J. Pregnancy-specific health anxiety: symptom or diagnosis? Br J Midwifery. 2019;27(5):288–93.

Selix NW, Goyal D. Recent Policy Changes in Perinatal Depression Screening and Treatment. J Nurse Pract. 2018;14(2):117–23.

Chen C-H. Revision and validation of a scale to assess pregnancy stress. J Nurs Res JNR. 2015;23(1):25–32.

Moyer CA, Compton SD, Kaselitz E, Muzik M. Pregnancy-related anxiety during COVID-19: a nationwide survey of 2740 pregnant women. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2020;1–9.

Du L, Gu YB, Cui MQ, Li WX, Wang J, Zhu LP, et al. Investigation on demands for antenatal care services among 2 002 pregnant women during the epidemic of COVID-19 in Shanghai. Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi. 2020;55(3):160–5.

Maharlouei N, Asadi N, Bazrafshan K, Roozmeh S, Rezaianzadeh A, Zahed-roozegar M, et al. Knowledge and Attitude regarding COVID-19 among Pregnant Women in Southwestern Iran in the Early Period of its Outbreak: A Cross-Sectional Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020;103(6):2368–75.

Coxon K, Turienzo CF, Kweekel L, Goodarzi B, Brigante L, Simon A, et al. The impact of the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic on maternity care in Europe. Midwifery. 2020;88:102779.

Dewi A, Sundari S, Nursetiawan, Supriyatiningsih, Sugiyo D, Dewi DTK, et al. Reducing Maternal Mortality: A Qualitative Study of Health Workers’ Expectation in Urban Area, Indonesia. Open Access Maced J Med Sci. 2021;9(T4):18–26.

Koleva H, Stuart S, O’Hara MW, Bowman-Reif J. Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Arch Womens Ment Health. 2011;14(2):99–105.

Ben-Ari OT-, Chasson M, Sharkia SA, Weiss E. Distress and anxiety associated with COVID-19 among Jewish and Arab pregnant women in Israel. J Reprod Infant Psychol. 2020;38(3):340–8.

Zeng Y, Cui Y, Li J. Prevalence and predictors of antenatal depressive symptoms among Chinese women in their third trimester: a cross-sectional survey. BMC Psychiatry. 2015;15(1):66.

Saadati N, Afshari P, Boostani H, Beheshtinasab M, Abedi P, Maraghi E. Health anxiety and related factors among pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic: a cross-sectional study from Iran. BMC Psychiatry. 2021;21(1):95.

Ding W, Lu J, Zhou Y, Wei W, Zhou Z, Chen M. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and influencing factors of anxiety among pregnant women in Wuhan during the outbreak of COVID-19: a cross-sectional study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2021;21(1):80.

Tang X, Lu Z, Hu D, Zhong X. Influencing factors for prenatal Stress, anxiety and depression in early pregnancy among women in Chongqing, China. J Affect Disord. 2019;253:292–302.

Liu X, Chen M, Wang Y, Sun L, Zhang J, Shi Y, et al. Prenatal anxiety and obstetric decisions among pregnant women in Wuhan and Chongqing during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study. BJOG an Int J Obstet Gynaecol. 2020;127(10):1229–40.

Nekliudov NA, Blyuss O, Cheung KY, Petrou L, Genuneit J, Sushentsev N, et al. Excessive Media Consumption About COVID-19 is Associated With Increased State Anxiety: Outcomes of a Large Online Survey in Russia. J Med Internet Res. 2020;22(9):e20955.


Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0