Background: Wound care with modern dressings that have been widely used takes time to achieve healing. Therefore, Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) and Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) are developed in wound healing therapy. EGF as the primary growth factor examines whether it is sufficient to represent the role of other growth factors in PRP. EGF is also chosen because of its ease of provision and longer shelf life compared to PRP. This study evaluates the (EGF) representing the role of other growth factors contained in PRP.
Methods: The study was performed on 66 full-thickness wounds in 6 groups of 36 healthy male Oryctolagus cuniculus rabbits. Four treatment groups were given EGF and PRP therapies. Two control groups were given no treatment. Half of the groups were evaluated on the fifth day and the rest on the fourteenth day. Assessment on the clinical macroscopic and histopathological numbers of fibroblasts, capillary blood vessels, and type III collagen fibers were stained with Hematoxylin Eosin (HE) and Masson's Trichrome. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 23 for Windows.
Results: There was a statistically significant difference in fibroplasia (p=0.014; p=0.018) on the fifth and fourteenth days. However, there was no significant difference in angiogenesis (p=0.183; p=0.524) or collagenization (p=0.218; p=0.278) on the fifth and fourteenth day. On the fifth day, the number of capillary vessels was highest in the PRP groups (10.60±4.13), and the ratio of type III collagen fibers (53.00±13.00) was the highest in the EGF group. On the fourteenth day, the number of capillaries and the ratio of type III collagen fibers was the highest in the EGF groups (77.00±16.00).
Conclusion: EGF greatly increases the speed of macroscopic healing, accelerates fibroplasia, induces angiogenesis, and is also involved in collagen deposition compared to PRP administration, especially when compared to untreated wounds.