Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer


Over the last few years, the development of three-dimensional (3D) skin bioprinting has increased rapidly. The concept of bioprinting involves a computer in designing using conventional 3D printing. 3D bioprinting can produce tissue structures such as skin and have the opportunity to substitute autografts, which are still the gold standard today. Network construction in bioprinting requires stages in the network structure design, selection of cell and biomaterial raw materials, and the molding process. The use of keratinocytes and fibroblasts is used as the main raw material in the manufacture of the dermis and epidermis layers. The biomimetic technique will combine these raw materials with other biomaterials (hydrogel, collagen, fibrin, gelatin, alginate, chitosan, and chitin) and growth factors (hydrocortisone, thrombin, and FGF-2) so that the physiological condition of the skin can be created. Currently, 3D bioprinting research continues to develop in response to the various shortcomings and challenges faced. The purpose of this review is to discuss the current use of 3D bioprinting technology, the principles of this technology and the prospects for 3D skin bioprinting in the future.


  1. Huang Y, Zhang XF, Gao G, Yonezawa T, Cui X. 3D bioprinting and the current applications in tissue engineering. Biotechnol J. 2017;12(8).
  2. Beheshtizadeh N, Lotfibakhshaiesh N, Pazhouhnia Z, Hoseinpour M, Nafari M. A review of 3D bio-printing for bone and skin tissue engineering: a commercial approach. J Mater Sci. 2020;55(9):3729–49.
  3. Augustine R. Skin bioprinting: a novel approach for creating artificial skin from synthetic and natural building blocks. Prog Biomater. 2018;7(2):77–92.
  4. He P, Zhao J, Zhang J, Li B, Gou Z, Gou M, et al. Bioprinting of skin constructs for wound healing. Burn Trauma. 2018;6(1):1–10.
  5. KaÄarević ŽP, Rider PM, Alkildani S, Retnasingh S, Smeets R, Jung O, et al. An introduction to 3D bioprinting: Possibilities, challenges and future aspects. Materials (Basel). 2018;11(11).
  6. Haddad AG, Giatsidis G, Orgill DP, Halvorson EG. Skin Substitutes and Bioscaffolds: Temporary and Permanent Coverage. Clin Plast Surg. 2017;44(3):627–34.
  7. Boyce ST, Simpson PS, Rieman MT, Warner PM, Yakuboff KP, Bailey JK, et al. Randomized, Paired-Site Comparison of Autologous Engineered Skin Substitutes and Split-Thickness Skin Graft for Closure of Extensive, Full-Thickness Burns. J Burn Care Res. 2017;38(2):61–70.
  8. Bhardwaj N, Chouhan D, Mandal BB. 3D functional scaffolds for skin tissue engineering. Functional 3D Tissue Engineering Scaffolds: Materials, Technologies, and Applications. Elsevier Ltd; 2018. 345–365 p.
  9. Yan WC, Davoodi P, Vijayavenkataraman S, Tian Y, Ng WC, Fuh JYH, et al. 3D bioprinting of skin tissue: From pre-processing to final product evaluation. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2018;132:270–95.
  10. Chouhan D, Dey N, Bhardwaj N, Mandal BB. Emerging and innovative approaches for wound healing and skin regeneration: Current status and advances. Biomaterials. 2019;216(January):119267.
  11. Seol YJ, Lee H, Copus JS, Kang HW, Cho DW, Atala A, et al. 3D bioprinted biomask for facial skin reconstruction. Bioprinting. 2018;10.
  12. Kim JW, Kim MJ, Ki CS, Kim HJ, Park YH. Fabrication of bi-layer scaffold of keratin nanofiber and gelatin-methacrylate hydrogel: Implications for skin graft. Int J Biol Macromol. 2017;105:541–8.
  13. Fu L, Xie J, Carlson MA, Reilly DA. Three-dimensional nanofiber scaffolds with arrayed holes for engineering skin tissue constructs. MRS Commun. 2017;7(3):361–6.
  14. Pal P, Dadhich P, Srivas PK, Das B, Maulik D, Dhara S. Bilayered nanofibrous 3D hierarchy as skin rudiment by emulsion electrospinning for burn wound management. Biomater Sci. 2017;5(9):1786–99.
  15. Pandey AR, Singh US, Momin M, Bhavsar C. Chitosan: Application in tissue engineering and skin grafting. J Polym Res. 2017;24(8).
  16. Xiong S, Zhang X, Lu P, Wu Y, Wang Q, Sun H, et al. A Gelatin-sulfonated Silk Composite Scaffold based on 3D Printing Technology Enhances Skin Regeneration by Stimulating Epidermal Growth and Dermal Neovascularization. Sci Rep. 2017;7(1):1–12.
  17. Sutula D, Henyš P, Čapek L. Optimal structural pattern for maximal compliance using topology optimization based on phasefields: Application to improve skin graft meshing efficiency. Int j numer method biomed eng. 2020;36(12):e3405.
  18. Derr K, Zou J, Luo K, Song MJ, Sittampalam GS, Zhou C, et al. Fully Three-Dimensional Bioprinted Skin Equivalent Constructs with Validated Morphology and Barrier Function. Tissue Eng - Part C Methods. 2019;25(6):334–43.
  19. Vig K, Chaudhari A, Tripathi S, Dixit S, Sahu R, Pillai S, et al. Advances in skin regeneration using tissue engineering. Int J Mol Sci. 2017;18(4).
  20. Tarassoli SP, Jessop ZM, Al-Sabah A, Gao N, Whitaker S, Doak S, et al. Skin tissue engineering using 3D bioprinting: An evolving research field. J Plast Reconstr Aesthetic Surg. 2018;71(5):615–23.
  21. Ong CS, Yesantharao P, Huang CY, Mattson G, Boktor J, Fukunishi T, et al. 3D bioprinting using stem cells. Pediatr Res. 2018;83(1–2):223–31.
  22. Randall MJ, Jüngel A, Rimann M, Wuertz-Kozak K. Advances in the biofabrication of 3D skin in vitro: Healthy and pathological models. Front Bioeng Biotechnol. 2018;6:154.
  23. Kabirian F, Ditkowski B, Zamanian A, Heying R, Mozafari M. An innovative approach towards 3D-printed scaffolds for the next generation of tissue-engineered vascular grafts. Mater Today Proc. 2018;5(7):15586–94.
  24. Jian H, Wang M, Wang S, Wang A, Bai S. 3D bioprinting for cell culture and tissue fabrication. Bio-Design Manuf. 2018;1(1):45–61.
  25. Dixit S, Baganizi DR, Sahu R, Dosunmu E, Chaudhari A, Vig K, et al. Immunological challenges associated with artificial skin grafts: Available solutions and stem cells in future design of synthetic skin. J Biol Eng. 2017;11(1):1–23.
  26. Li C, Cheung TF, Fan VC, Sin KM, Wong CWY, Leung GKK. Applications of three-dimensional printing in surgery. Surg Innov. 2017;24(1):82–8.
  27. Ashammakhi N, Ahadian S, Pountos I, Hu SK, Tellisi N, Bandaru P, et al. In situ three-dimensional printing for reparative and regenerative therapy. Biomed Microdevices. 2019;21(2).

How to Cite

Santoso, Z. A. (2021). The future of three-dimensional skin graft: a mini-review. Bali Medical Journal, 10(1), 122–125.




Search Panel

Zendio Abednego Santoso
Google Scholar
BMJ Journal