Hypertensive emergency: an overview of heart as target organ damage

Starry Homenta Rampengan , H J Sunarto

Starry Homenta Rampengan
Department of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia. Email:

H J Sunarto
Resident of Cardiology and Vascular Medicine, Universitas Sam Ratulangi, Manado, Indonesia
Online First: December 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Rampengan, S., Sunarto, H. 2020. Hypertensive emergency: an overview of heart as target organ damage. Bali Medical Journal 9(3): 903-906. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v9i3.2174

Hypertension is currently still a global problem in the cardiology and vascular fields with an increasing trend. One of the emergency conditions related to an increase in blood pressure is emergency hypertension. Emergency hypertension is a condition where blood pressure rises rapidly and severely, resulting in new or progressive organ damage. Symptoms can range from chest pain, shortness of breath to delirium. The heart is one of the organs that can be damaged by hypertensive emergencies. The availability and demand for oxygen from the coronary blood vessels to the heart muscle cells will experience an imbalance due to a sudden increase in blood pressure. Lack of oxygen that occurs can cause heart muscle cells' death affected heart structure and its function. The symptoms that appear can be in the form of acute coronary syndrome or acute heart failure. Some modalities can detect heart structure changes, like electrocardiography for general and echocardiography for specific examination. Hypertensive emergencies can be treated by several rapid-acting antihypertensive agents, which can be selected based on the clinical manifestations. As the symptoms related to heart damage are acute coronary syndrome and acute heart failure, so the treatment will be specific, respectively. Good knowledge related to emergency hypertension management and early treatment will reduce patient morbidity.


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