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The erection conundrum: risk factors for erectile dysfunction among middle-aged and elderly men in Lamongan, East Java, Indonesia


Background: The most common sexual problem affecting the general population of men is Erectile Dysfunction (ED) with a global estimated number of over 100 million. It affects the biological, psychological, and social aspect of life which can cause frustration, depression, and anxiety. Unfortunately, the attention towards the disease in Indonesia is often overlooked as evidenced by the lack of studies regarding the prevalence and risk factors for the disease. This study aims to evaluate possible risk factors of Erectile Dysfunction among elderly males in Lamongan, East Java.

Methods: This is a quantitative study with an analytical observational design, performed using a case-control approach. Respondents consisted of male inpatients as well as outpatients aged 40 years or more in Ngimbang General Hospital evaluated using the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) questionnaire. The patient’s comorbid data are taken from the Medical Record to ensure proper diagnosis. The acquired data are then analysed using the ordinal logistic regression method.

Results: A total of 174 men were evaluated. There are 62 people with no ED (35.6%), 39 people with mild ED (22.4%), 35 people with mild to moderate ED (20.1%), 16 people with moderate ED (9.2%), and 22 people with severe ED (12.6%). Significant risk factors are older age (OR: 1.29; CI: 1.23-1.37), Diabetes (OR: 6.56; CI: 2.77-15.56), and hypertension (OR: 5.19; CI: 2.27-11.88) (all, p < 0.05); whereas dyslipidemia and smoking habit are insignificant (p>0.05).

Conclusion: Age, diabetes, and hypertension are significant risk factors for Erectile Dysfunction.


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How to Cite

Kloping, Y. P., Himawan, B., & Balti, D. R. (2019). The erection conundrum: risk factors for erectile dysfunction among middle-aged and elderly men in Lamongan, East Java, Indonesia. Bali Medical Journal, 8(3), 793–797.




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