Background: Delirium is common and serious problem with high morbidity and mortality, especially in geriatric patients. Decrease in the number of neuroprotective factors (IGF-I and IL-1RA) and increase in IFN-Î³ had been correlated with the incidence of delirium. This study aims to understand whether these markers can be used as predictors for mortality in geriatric patients with delirium in an effort to prevent the adverse events of delirium.
Methods: In this observational analytic study with prospective cohort design carried out in the Geriatric Installation care room at Sanglah General Hospital in Denpasar in 2018, 76 samples were examined for their IGF-1, IL-1RA, IFN-Î³ plasma levels. Patients were then followed during their hospital stay until they were declared cured or died due to delirium or its complications. The relationship between each group and mortality rate were then analyzed using univariate, bivariate and multivariate analysis.
Results: In this study, median was used as the cutoff point for IGF-1 levels [21.38 (0.00-91.07)], IL-1RA levels [2,491.48 (193,44-6720,13)] and IFN-Î³ [194.29 (0.00-2200.96)]. In multivariate analysis, low plasma levels of IGF-1 (HR= 4.12 [95% CI: 1,458 - 11,642, p=0.008]) and IL-1RA (HR=2.91 [95 % CI: 1.037 - 8.154, p= 0.043]) proved to be an independent factor in the occurrence of death in geriatric patients with delirium. However, IFN- Î³ failed to show any correlations.
Conclusion: Both low plasma levels of IGF-1 and IL-1RA can be used as predictors for mortality in geriatric patients with delirium.