REVIEW

Melanogenesis and its associated signalings

Betty Ekawati Suryaningsih

Betty Ekawati Suryaningsih
Department of Dermatology and Venerology, Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta. Email: betty.e.s@uii.ac.id
Online First: April 01, 2020 | Cite this Article
Suryaningsih, B. 2020. Melanogenesis and its associated signalings. Bali Medical Journal 9(1): 327-331. DOI:10.15562/bmj.v9i1.1796


Introduction: Melanogenesis is the mechanism of melanin formation in the skin or hair, which is produced by melanosomes in melanocytes. Melanin is the main coloring pigment of the skin, hair and eyes, and also functions as a photoprotection against ultra-violet (UV) exposure.

Methods: A total 20 relevant literatures which focused on skin pigmentation and melanogenesis were used to construct this review. The articles were published from 1998-2018. Most of the literatures were basic research and the clinical information were extracted from their discussion.

Result: The process of melanogenesis starts from the migrational process of melanoblasts which are precursors of melanocyte cells originating from the neural crest into the epidermal layer and hair follicles. Many factors play a role in melanogenis both intrinsically and extrinsically, the dominant intrinsic factor is Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone-α (α-MSH) while the extrinsic factor that plays a role is UV ray.

Conclusion: Melanogenesis is a complex process which influenced by a wide array of internal and external factors with α-MSH and UV ray act as the main regulators. Due to delicate nature of this process, defect in a certain stage could result in significant medical condition.

References

Videira IF dos S, Moura DFL, Magina S. Mechanisms regulating melanogenesis*. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88(1):76–83.

Cichorek M, Wachulska M, Stasiewicz A, Tymińska A. Skin melanocytes: biology and development. Adv Dermatol Allergol. 2013;1:30–41.

Bolognia LJ, Orlow JS. chapter 65 Biology Melanocyte. Dermatology by Bolognia JL,Jorizzo LJ,Schaffer VJ. Saunders; 3 edition june 2012;

Li A. The biology of melanocyte and melanocyte stem cell. Acta Biochim Biophys Sin. 2014 Apr 1;46(4):255–60.

Tsatmali M, Ancans J, Thody AJ. Melanocyte function and its control by melanocortin peptides. J Histochem Cytochem. 2002;50(2):125–33.

Virador MV, Muller J, Wu X, Malek A, Ferrans JV. Influence of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone and of UV.pdf. Faseb J Express Artic 101096published Line Novemb 292001.

Schaffer VJ, Bolognia LJ. Chapter 3 The Biologyn of Melanocyte. Cancer of The skin, 2 nd edition Rigel S D, Robinson KJ, Ross I M, Friedman R, Cockerell J, Lim H, Stockfleth E. Saunders 2011;

Yaar M, Park H-Y. Melanocytes: a window into the nervous system. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132:835–45.

Park Young, Pongpudpunth M, Lee Jin. chapter 70. Disorder of Melanocyte.Fitzpatrick’s Dermatology in general Medicine. Editor Wolff K, Goldsmith L, Katz S, Gilcherest B, Paller A, Leffel D. 7 th.

Gáspár E, Nguyen-Thi KT, Hardenbicker C, Tiede S, Plate C, Bodó E, et al. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone selectively stimulates human hair follicle pigmentation. J Invest Dermatol. 2011;131(12):2368–77.

Schallreuter KU. Advances in Melanocyte Basic Science Research. Dermatol Clin. 2007 Jul;25(3):283–91.

Luger AT, Scholen T, Grabbe S. The Role of a-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone in.pdf. J Invest Dermatol. vol 2, no 1 August 1997.

Price ER, Horstmann MA, Wells AG, Weilbaecher KN, Takemoto CM, Landis MW, et al. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone signaling regulates expression of microphthalmia, a gene deficient in Waardenburg syndrome. J Biol Chem. 1998;273(49):33042–7.

Costin G-E, Hearing VJ. Human skin pigmentation: melanocytes modulate skin color in response to stress. FASEB J. 2007 Jan 23;21(4):976–94.

Ando H, Niki Y, Ito M, Akiyama K, Matsui MS, Yarosh DB, et al. Melanosomes are transferred from melanocytes to keratinocytes through the processes of packaging, release, uptake, and dispersion. J Invest Dermatol. 2012;132(4):1222–9.

Dessinioti C, Antoniou C, Katsambas A, Stratigos AJ. Melanocortin 1 Receptor Variants: Functional Role and Pigmentary Associations: Photochemistry and Photobiology. Photochem Photobiol. 2011 Sep;87(5):978–87.

Lin JY, Fisher DE. Melanocyte biology and skin pigmentation. Nat Vol 44522 Febr 2007. 2007 Feb 22;445(7130):843–50.

Abdel-Malek ZA, Knittel J, Kadekaro AL, Swope VB, Starner R. The Melanocortin 1 Receptor and the UV Response of Human Melanocytes—A Shift in Paradigm†. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84(2):501–8.

Kadekaro AL, Chen J, Yang J, Chen S, Jameson J, Swope VB, et al. Alpha-Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone Suppresses Oxidative Stress through a p53-Mediated Signaling Pathway in Human Melanocytes. Mol Cancer Res. 2012 Jun 1;10(6):778–86.

Suryaningsih BE, Soebono H. The Biology of Melanocyite. Media Dermato- Veneorologica Indonesiana vol 43, no 2 page 78-82, April 2016


No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 0
PDF Downloads : 0